There is extensive literature written on negation but only recently have studies begun to expand outside of the scope of Indo-European languages. Linguists are finding that certain patterns thought to be cross-linguistic are largely unattested outside this most heavily studied language family. The intent of this thesis is to survey the negation strategies in a collection of Kwa (Niger-Congo) languages to contribute to the literature on negation. Commonly cited patterns such as Jespersen’s cycle (Jespersen 1917) are almost entirely unattested in Kwa. There is a consistent pattern of marking negation in Akan, Ewe, and the North Guang languages involving the use of a preverbal nasal morpheme. Interestingly three South Guang languages utilize instead a verbal prefix bÉ-. The Ga-Dangme languages stand out in their use of verbal suffixes rather than prefixes. The Ghana-Togo Mountain subgroup of the Kwa language group also does not rely on preverbal nasal negation marking.
This thesis addressed whether trends could be found in studies that used questionnaires to ascertain nurses’ perceptions of supervisory leadership for safety in the context of patient safety culture. Thirty-five studies were analyzed. They used the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture, Safety Attitudes Questionnaire, Safety Climate Survey, Survey on Safety in Nursing Homes, RN4CAST. One study used qualitative interviews. The result was that patient safety culture assessments should be interpreted relative to the context in which they are conducted. Results are not generalizable and trends among the studies could not be identified. Participants’ culture, workplace culture and geographic location were found to be important influences. It was also found to be important to reassess at intervals and examine the results in the context of the workplace at the time of each assessment. There is benefit to combining qualitative and quantitative methods to assess patient safety culture.