The purpose of this project was to develop assessment and treatment protocols for clinical research on performance-specific Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). The treatments used were Observed and Experiential Integration (OEI; a trauma-root-focused therapy), and Breathing, Relaxation, Autogenics, Imagery, and grouNding (BRAIN; a trauma-symptom-focused therapy). Similarities between trauma and anxiety symptoms suggest a traumatic cause of SAD. Both trauma-root-focused and trauma-symptom-focused treatments resulted in improvements in: (a) narrow-spectrum symptoms of speaker confidence and public speaking behaviour. In response to trauma-root-focused treatment: (a) broad-spectrum symptoms of general anxiety and depression improved, and (b) psychophysiological reactivity to past traumatic social experiences was reduced. Diverse types of measurements (self-report, behaviour sampling, and psychophysiological measures) will be helpful for understanding (a) broad-spectrum, (b) narrow- spectrum, and (c) psychophysiological symptoms. Results of descriptive analyses supported the existence of traumatic origins of performance-specific SAD.
This thesis examines apostolic memory and the manner in which these memories were leveraged in the early church. Chapter One provides a summary of the apostolic portrait in the New Testament and charts all references to the twelve among the apostolic fathers, through to Justin and Hegesippus. These writers reveal a view of the apostles distinguished primarily for their honoured role as Christ’s messengers. Chapter Two demonstrates how Irenaeus utilized apostolic memory in such a way that led to an all-encompassing apostolic identity for the church. This development is compared with Tertullian’s ideas, and the comparison reveals a marked difference in emphasis and strategy. In contrast to Irenaeus, Tertullian minimized apostolic referencing and identification, and instead utilized language more dependent on Christocentric identity. These differences are explained in Chapter Three, which argues that the key point of differentiation was the writers’ perspectives on the apostles’ empowerment by the Holy Spirit.
Using a switching replications quasi-experimental design, this study investigated the effectiveness of the application Clicker Docs and tablet accessibility features as a 6 week alternating intervention tool for improving writing. Aspects of writing included writing quality, writing output, and attitudes of struggling writers. Two groups of 11 students from grades 2-7 who were identified with a disability or as a struggling writer, alternated participation in this intervention program. A mixed 2x2 repeated measures analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with pre-test scores as covariate was used. Results showed a large significant effect on writing quality at Post-test 2. On average, those in the iPad intervention group demonstrated better writing quality than those in the control group. In addition, a medium significant effect was found for writing output. On average, those in the iPad intervention group wrote less overall than those in the control group. No effect was found for attitude towards writing.
This thesis will suggest a centered approach to biblical hermeneutics, proposing a balance in the function of the hemispheres of the human mind, left and right. It will examine how `ordinary readers' are doing hermeneutics both in Africa and the West, and join these contributions to the insights of scholars who use the historical-grammatical hermeneutic, and laypeople who use a personal-devotional hermeneutic. The insights of Gadamer will be employed on the topic of horizons of authors and readers. The interpretive practices of ordinary readers will be justified through the theological concept of sensus plenior. The communication that takes place through Scripture will be analyzed in the framework of a linguistic theory of communication, Relevance Theory, which will explain why ordinary readers interpret in a personal-devotional way. After proposing a balanced hermeneutic, constraints are proposed for its outworking, looking at the significance of this thesis for the church and Bible translation.
This research aims to suggest the various key leadership development roles of a lead pastor that will significantly influence the future development of effective spiritual leaders at a local church setting. By reviewing the current literature and biblical foundations, and interviewing the lead pastors and lay leaders/pastors of selected Chinese churches at Greater Vancouver Area, British Columbia, the author developed a contour or paradigm that defines effective spiritual leadership as a holistic personal life development, which includes seven ingredients: Passionate Affection for God, the Servanthood Character of Jesus, Self-understanding and Identity in Christ, Authentic Community Life, Emotionally Healthy Life, Self-differentiated Competence, and Ministry and Life Transformation; and also suggested a common set of the key roles of a lead pastor – Team Builder, Community Developer, Mentor, Group Trainer, Discipler and Coach - that are essential for developing effective spiritual leaders at Chinese churches of Canada.
Social studies education in British Columbia from the 1940s until present has upheld active citizenship as a central objective of the program. While citizenship is never clearly defined, generally it has been assumed that through a process of self-actualization students come to know their rights and responsibilities as Canadian citizens. Problematically, these notions of citizenship have shaped the narration of Aboriginality within social studies education. Aboriginality has been represented in learning outcomes and resources materials within a progressive Canadian metanarrative, creating inaccurate and uninformed characterizations of Aboriginal peoples. Overall, social studies education has had a negative impact on the First Nations-Canadian relationship. However, social studies education could assist in developing more positive relationships. Engaging students in transformed historical study that fosters questioning, examines narrative choices, sees negotiation and interaction, recognizes and honours difference, and allows for dialogue, may foster more promising relationships in the future.
Baccalaureate nursing students must develop clinical reasoning skills in order to make sound clinical judgments. How students understand clinical reasoning is of interest to nurse educators. In a qualitative study, eight third-year nursing students were interviewed about their perceptions of clinical reasoning on a Clinical Judgment Exercise (CJE). An overarching theme of Over Time emerged from the data along with two themes: Understanding of Clinical Reasoning and Making Sense of the Assignment. The sub-themes that emerged were the same for each theme and were not knowing, knowing, applying knowing and valuing knowing. Conclusions were that student participants perceived: 1) understanding of clinical reasoning developed over time, 2) understanding of the patient’s problem deepened over the time of writing the assignment, 3) they were challenged by the complexity of the patient, 4) they were able to apply learning from the CJE to nursing practice and 5) writing the CJE was stressful.
Through the elicitation of 91 Swahili sentences and the collection of one oral text, this research compares the TAM systems of several Mara Bantu languages (Tanzania/Kenya) with the aim of finding any shared "individual-identifying" innovations (Nichols 1996) that can either affirm Mara as a coherent genetic linguistic sub-group (Schoenbrun 1990) or point toward a different historical scenario. A secondary goal is to provide a preliminary linguistic description of the TAM systems of five Mara languages: Ikizu (JE402, [ikz]), Ikoma (JE45, [ntk]), Kabwa (JE405, [cwa]), Simbiti (JE431, [ssc]), and Zanaki (JE44, [zak]). The research concludes that there is sufficient "individual-identifying" evidence from TAM systems to validate both a North Mara and a South Mara subgroup (Schoenbrun 1990). There is not, on the other hand, a sufficient base of shared "individual-identifying" innovations to propose a unique proto-Mara TAM system uniting North Mara and South Mara at a post-proto-Great Lakes phase of development.
Compassion fatigue (CF) has been found to influence nursing care providers (NCP) in a variety of specialized areas; however, general medicine unit settings are often overlooked. A potential way to mitigate CF could be through the use of organizational empowerment structures. 117 nursing care providers (NCP) and health care attendants (HCAs) who provided direct patient care in the hospital medical unit context were surveyed using a cross-sectional survey design. Five units from four hospitals of a large, urban health authority in British Columbia participated. Findings revealed that 55% of the sample reported moderate to severe levels of CF. Accessibility to resources was the only organizational empowerment structure that explained variability in the sample's experience of CF (p < 0.01). In addition, the variance of CF was partially explained by the participants' highest level of education and marital status (p < 0.05). Further investigation is needed to further assess CF mitigation.
The academic study of the seven-headed sea beast symbolism in the Apocalypse has proceeded along contemporary historical lines since the modern period. This approach seeks to locate the meaning of this symbolic reference within the historical context from which the book derives. While it remains true that careful historical analysis has advanced our understanding of the world in which the seer of Patmos lived and wrote, a strictly contemporary historical focus threatens to confine the significance of this apocalyptic symbol to the environs of the first century. In seeking to recover the theological and contemporary relevance of this symbol as a critique of imperial ambitions, this thesis argues for a reading strategy which locates the Book of Revelation foremost in the context of "canon." Such a reading stance illuminates the meaning of the symbolic beast in relationship to the deep intertextual and theological history which the final book of the Bible shares with the canonical corpus of Christian Scriptures.
The connections and tensions between siblings may impact the development and well-being that children with ASD and their typically developing (TD) siblings experience. Parenting style and parental stress are two factors that impact a caregiver's ability to effectively foster positive relationships. Finally, the interplay between sibling relationships, caregiver characteristics, sibling involvement in intervention, and success in ASD intervention is of interest. Primary caregivers (N = 108) completed an online questionnaire and a hierarchical multiple regression was conducted. Results indicated: 1) Parenting stress explains 12% of the variance found in the warmth and closeness of sibling relationships; 2) Sibling involvement and success in ASD intervention cumulatively contributes to 13.5% of the variance found in the warmth and closeness of sibling relationships; and 3) warmth and closeness uniquely explains 7% of the variance of success in ASD intervention. Limitations, practical implications, and future research direction will be discussed.
This thesis explores the difference between separable and non-separable transitive English phrasal verbs, focusing on finding a reason for the non-separable verbs’ lack of compatibility with the word order alternation which is present with the separable phrasal verbs. The analysis is formed from a synthesis of ideas based on the work of Bolinger (1971) and Gorlach (2004). A simplified version of Cognitive Construction Grammar is used to analyse and categorize the phrasal verb constructions. The results indicate that separable and non-separable transitive English phrasal verbs are similar but different constructions with specific syntactic reasons for the incompatibility of the word order alternation with the non-separable verbs.