Stephanie E. Hall (author), Richard Bradshaw (thesis supervisor), Marvin McDonald (second reader), Bill Acton (third reader), Trinity Western University SGS (Degree granting institution)
The purpose of this project was to develop assessment and treatment protocols for clinical research on performance-specific Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). The treatments used were Observed and Experiential Integration (OEI; a trauma-root-focused therapy), and Breathing, Relaxation, Autogenics, Imagery, and grouNding (BRAIN; a trauma-symptom-focused therapy). Similarities between trauma and anxiety symptoms suggest a traumatic cause of SAD. Both trauma-root-focused and trauma-symptom-focused treatments resulted in improvements in: (a) narrow-spectrum symptoms of speaker confidence and public speaking behaviour. In response to trauma-root-focused treatment: (a) broad-spectrum symptoms of general anxiety and depression improved, and (b) psychophysiological reactivity to past traumatic social experiences was reduced. Diverse types of measurements (self-report, behaviour sampling, and psychophysiological measures) will be helpful for understanding (a) broad-spectrum, (b) narrow- spectrum, and (c) psychophysiological symptoms. Results of descriptive analyses supported the existence of traumatic origins of performance-specific SAD.
Heather R. Stace-Smith (author), Kenneth Pudlas (thesis supervisor), Katrina Korb (second reader), Julie Corkett (external examiner), Trinity Western University SGS (Degree granting institution)
Using a switching replications quasi-experimental design, this study investigated the effectiveness of the application Clicker Docs and tablet accessibility features as a 6 week alternating intervention tool for improving writing. Aspects of writing included writing quality, writing output, and attitudes of struggling writers. Two groups of 11 students from grades 2-7 who were identified with a disability or as a struggling writer, alternated participation in this intervention program. A mixed 2x2 repeated measures analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with pre-test scores as covariate was used. Results showed a large significant effect on writing quality at Post-test 2. On average, those in the iPad intervention group demonstrated better writing quality than those in the control group. In addition, a medium significant effect was found for writing output. On average, those in the iPad intervention group wrote less overall than those in the control group. No effect was found for attitude towards writing.
Mary K DeLong (author), Richard Sawatzky (thesis supervisor), Lena Cuthbertson (second reader), Sheryl Reimer-Kirkham (third reader), Trinity Western University SGS (Degree granting institution)
Person-centred care acknowledges the person behind the patient and can enhance the quality of life of long term care residents. Relational aspects of health care are foundational to person-centred care; this study examines associations between relational aspects of care and residents’ self-reported mental and physical health. A secondary analysis of British Columbia Residential Care Survey data (N = 2,108) used hierarchical multivariate linear regression to evaluate the extent to which relational aspects of care explain variation in self-reported physical and mental health, relative to other care experiences. Relative improvement in relational aspects of care was associated with greater self-reported physical and mental health. For self-reported physical health, relational aspects accounted for 34.5% of the explained variance (R2 = 0.279), and for self-reported mental health, accounted for 48.3% of the explained variance (R2 = 0.274). Relational aspects of care do positively influence residents’ physical and mental health outcomes.
Melissa J. De Boer (author), Richard Sawatzky (thesis supervisor), Sheryl Reimer-Kirkham (second reader), Patricia Porterfield (third reader), Trinity Western University SGS (Degree granting institution)
In this qualitative study, five nurses and four physicians from intensive care settings were interviewed about their experiences of the end-of-life (EOL) decision making process. For both professional groups, a shared mission to avoid futility was identified as foundational and climactic aim to the process. This desire heavily shaped initiation and engagement of what was presented as an ambiguous decision making process. Three themes emerged of elements that most influenced their variable experiences of the EOL decision making process: moral weightiness, family receptiveness, and the individual philosophy of approach. These findings emphasize the wide amount of subjective variability experienced and shed light on the competing emotional, psychological, and social interests for ICU nurses and physicians in the EOL decision making process. There must be greater understanding of the EOL decision making process in an intensive care context to provide better support to nurses and physicians.
Rachel M Froese (author), Landa Terblanche (thesis supervisor), Sheryl Reimer-Kirkham (second reader), Maggie Theron (third reader), Trinity Western University SGS (Degree granting institution)
The phenomenon of bullying within nursing is not new, and unfortunately nursing students are often victims. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the perspectives of nursing students who have been bullied by staff nurses during a clinical experience. Participants from two western Canadian universities were recruited through convenience and snowball sampling using a series of emails and by a social media poster. Data collection involved one on one semi structured interviews with six senior undergraduate nursing students. Three main themes were identified: the student experience of bullying; the intervening influence of nursing educators; and the outcome of (in)security. Recommendations included education provided to students, clinical sites and clinical instructors; clinical setting guidelines for clinical instructors; policy implementation for reporting bullying and creating clinical groups; greater communication by institutional nursing leaders with staff and clinical instructors; and further research.
Benjamin J. Wukasch (author), Steve Nicolle (thesis supervisor), Ken Radant (second reader), Allan Effa (third reader), Trinity Western University SGS (Degree granting institution)
This thesis will suggest a centered approach to biblical hermeneutics, proposing a balance in the function of the hemispheres of the human mind, left and right. It will examine how `ordinary readers' are doing hermeneutics both in Africa and the West, and join these contributions to the insights of scholars who use the historical-grammatical hermeneutic, and laypeople who use a personal-devotional hermeneutic. The insights of Gadamer will be employed on the topic of horizons of authors and readers. The interpretive practices of ordinary readers will be justified through the theological concept of sensus plenior. The communication that takes place through Scripture will be analyzed in the framework of a linguistic theory of communication, Relevance Theory, which will explain why ordinary readers interpret in a personal-devotional way. After proposing a balanced hermeneutic, constraints are proposed for its outworking, looking at the significance of this thesis for the church and Bible translation.
Matthew Yat Sun Sin (author), Jim Lucas (thesis supervisor), Daryl Busby (second reader), Trinity Western University GSTS (Degree granting institution)
This research aims to suggest the various key leadership development roles of a lead pastor that will significantly influence the future development of effective spiritual leaders at a local church setting. By reviewing the current literature and biblical foundations, and interviewing the lead pastors and lay leaders/pastors of selected Chinese churches at Greater Vancouver Area, British Columbia, the author developed a contour or paradigm that defines effective spiritual leadership as a holistic personal life development, which includes seven ingredients: Passionate Affection for God, the Servanthood Character of Jesus, Self-understanding and Identity in Christ, Authentic Community Life, Emotionally Healthy Life, Self-differentiated Competence, and Ministry and Life Transformation; and also suggested a common set of the key roles of a lead pastor – Team Builder, Community Developer, Mentor, Group Trainer, Discipler and Coach - that are essential for developing effective spiritual leaders at Chinese churches of Canada.
Nicole Birkeland (author), Bruce Shelvey (thesis supervisor), Matthew Etherington (second reader), Jean Barman (external examiner), Trinity Western University SGS (Degree granting institution)
Social studies education in British Columbia from the 1940s until present has upheld active citizenship as a central objective of the program. While citizenship is never clearly defined, generally it has been assumed that through a process of self-actualization students come to know their rights and responsibilities as Canadian citizens. Problematically, these notions of citizenship have shaped the narration of Aboriginality within social studies education. Aboriginality has been represented in learning outcomes and resources materials within a progressive Canadian metanarrative, creating inaccurate and uninformed characterizations of Aboriginal peoples. Overall, social studies education has had a negative impact on the First Nations-Canadian relationship. However, social studies education could assist in developing more positive relationships. Engaging students in transformed historical study that fosters questioning, examines narrative choices, sees negotiation and interaction, recognizes and honours difference, and allows for dialogue, may foster more promising relationships in the future.
Karen Oostra (author), Barbara Astle (thesis supervisor), Heather Meyerhoff (second reader), Em Pijl Zieber (third reader), Trinity Western University SGS (Degree granting institution)
Baccalaureate nursing students must develop clinical reasoning skills in order to make sound clinical judgments. How students understand clinical reasoning is of interest to nurse educators. In a qualitative study, eight third-year nursing students were interviewed about their perceptions of clinical reasoning on a Clinical Judgment Exercise (CJE). An overarching theme of Over Time emerged from the data along with two themes: Understanding of Clinical Reasoning and Making Sense of the Assignment. The sub-themes that emerged were the same for each theme and were not knowing, knowing, applying knowing and valuing knowing. Conclusions were that student participants perceived: 1) understanding of clinical reasoning developed over time, 2) understanding of the patient’s problem deepened over the time of writing the assignment, 3) they were challenged by the complexity of the patient, 4) they were able to apply learning from the CJE to nursing practice and 5) writing the CJE was stressful.
John B. Walker (author), Jamin Pelkey (thesis supervisor), Sean Allison (second reader), Oliver Stegen (third reader), Trinity Western University SGS (Degree granting institution)
Through the elicitation of 91 Swahili sentences and the collection of one oral text, this research compares the TAM systems of several Mara Bantu languages (Tanzania/Kenya) with the aim of finding any shared "individual-identifying" innovations (Nichols 1996) that can either affirm Mara as a coherent genetic linguistic sub-group (Schoenbrun 1990) or point toward a different historical scenario. A secondary goal is to provide a preliminary linguistic description of the TAM systems of five Mara languages: Ikizu (JE402, [ikz]), Ikoma (JE45, [ntk]), Kabwa (JE405, [cwa]), Simbiti (JE431, [ssc]), and Zanaki (JE44, [zak]). The research concludes that there is sufficient "individual-identifying" evidence from TAM systems to validate both a North Mara and a South Mara subgroup (Schoenbrun 1990). There is not, on the other hand, a sufficient base of shared "individual-identifying" innovations to propose a unique proto-Mara TAM system uniting North Mara and South Mara at a post-proto-Great Lakes phase of development.
Danielle Lisa Katherine Chatterton (author), Richard Sawatzky (thesis supervisor), Angela Wolff (thesis supervisor), Landa Terblanche (third reader), Trinity Western University SGS (Degree granting institution)
Compassion fatigue (CF) has been found to influence nursing care providers (NCP) in a variety of specialized areas; however, general medicine unit settings are often overlooked. A potential way to mitigate CF could be through the use of organizational empowerment structures. 117 nursing care providers (NCP) and health care attendants (HCAs) who provided direct patient care in the hospital medical unit context were surveyed using a cross-sectional survey design. Five units from four hospitals of a large, urban health authority in British Columbia participated. Findings revealed that 55% of the sample reported moderate to severe levels of CF. Accessibility to resources was the only organizational empowerment structure that explained variability in the sample's experience of CF (p < 0.01). In addition, the variance of CF was partially explained by the participants' highest level of education and marital status (p < 0.05). Further investigation is needed to further assess CF mitigation.
The connections and tensions between siblings may impact the development and well-being that children with ASD and their typically developing (TD) siblings experience. Parenting style and parental stress are two factors that impact a caregiver's ability to effectively foster positive relationships. Finally, the interplay between sibling relationships, caregiver characteristics, sibling involvement in intervention, and success in ASD intervention is of interest. Primary caregivers (N = 108) completed an online questionnaire and a hierarchical multiple regression was conducted. Results indicated: 1) Parenting stress explains 12% of the variance found in the warmth and closeness of sibling relationships; 2) Sibling involvement and success in ASD intervention cumulatively contributes to 13.5% of the variance found in the warmth and closeness of sibling relationships; and 3) warmth and closeness uniquely explains 7% of the variance of success in ASD intervention. Limitations, practical implications, and future research direction will be discussed.