Stephanie E. Hall (author), Richard Bradshaw (thesis supervisor), Marvin McDonald (second reader), Bill Acton (third reader), Trinity Western University SGS (Degree granting institution)
The purpose of this project was to develop assessment and treatment protocols for clinical research on performance-specific Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). The treatments used were Observed and Experiential Integration (OEI; a trauma-root-focused therapy), and Breathing, Relaxation, Autogenics, Imagery, and grouNding (BRAIN; a trauma-symptom-focused therapy). Similarities between trauma and anxiety symptoms suggest a traumatic cause of SAD. Both trauma-root-focused and trauma-symptom-focused treatments resulted in improvements in: (a) narrow-spectrum symptoms of speaker confidence and public speaking behaviour. In response to trauma-root-focused treatment: (a) broad-spectrum symptoms of general anxiety and depression improved, and (b) psychophysiological reactivity to past traumatic social experiences was reduced. Diverse types of measurements (self-report, behaviour sampling, and psychophysiological measures) will be helpful for understanding (a) broad-spectrum, (b) narrow- spectrum, and (c) psychophysiological symptoms. Results of descriptive analyses supported the existence of traumatic origins of performance-specific SAD.
Daniel E. Hawkins (author), Craig Broyles (thesis supervisor), Andrew B. Perrin (second reader), Trinity Western University SGS (Degree granting institution)
This thesis will investigate three inter-connected questions. First, how are outsiders portrayed in the Abrahamic narratives? Secondly, is the portrayal of outsiders different between the different sources of Genesis, and, if so, what does the possible historical context of each source contribute to an understanding of why these differences exist? This in turn will contribute to the larger and third question: does the Documentary Hypothesis specifically, and diachronic analysis in general, have sufficient value for understanding the text as it now stands? It will be shown that while the Documentary Hypothesis involves some speculation, it offers a more coherent framework through which one can interpret and understand many of the complexities that arise in a reading of the Pentateuch. As such, diachronic analysis proves to be an invaluable tool for interpreting the final form of Genesis, if one is aware of its limitations.
D. William Springer (author), Bruce Guenther (thesis supervisor), Archie Spencer (second reader), Craig Allert (external examiner), Trinity Western University GSTS (Degree granting institution)
This thesis examines apostolic memory and the manner in which these memories were leveraged in the early church. Chapter One provides a summary of the apostolic portrait in the New Testament and charts all references to the twelve among the apostolic fathers, through to Justin and Hegesippus. These writers reveal a view of the apostles distinguished primarily for their honoured role as Christ’s messengers. Chapter Two demonstrates how Irenaeus utilized apostolic memory in such a way that led to an all-encompassing apostolic identity for the church. This development is compared with Tertullian’s ideas, and the comparison reveals a marked difference in emphasis and strategy. In contrast to Irenaeus, Tertullian minimized apostolic referencing and identification, and instead utilized language more dependent on Christocentric identity. These differences are explained in Chapter Three, which argues that the key point of differentiation was the writers’ perspectives on the apostles’ empowerment by the Holy Spirit.
C. Sean Smith (author), Sean D. Allison (thesis supervisor), Steve M. Nicolle (second reader), Pilar M. Valenzuela (third reader), Trinity Western University SGS (Degree granting institution)
This thesis is a description of the switch reference system in Marubo (ISO 693-3 [mzr]), an underdescribed Panoan language of western Amazonia. Marubo has a fascinating switch reference system which carries a high functional load in the grammar. This complex system, comprised of nine markers, tracks referents across clauses, often displaying sensitivity to an argument’s grammatical role; temporal and logical relations are also encoded as extended functions of the markers. Of particular typological interest is the cross-referencing of O arguments with other S, A, or O arguments. Switch reference markers may occur in clause chains where they target either adjacent or non-adjacent clauses. In certain cases, the standard order of clauses may be reversed, often producing a reading which elaborates on the preceding information. In addition, non-coreferential clauses may be interposed in clause chains for brief alternations of topic. Lastly, areas which deserve more study are presented, such as the flexible use of switch reference to mark discontinuities related to time, weather and events. All data and analysis come from four years of immersion-based fieldwork by the author, with abundant examples from a variety of Marubo discourse genres.
Heather R. Stace-Smith (author), Kenneth Pudlas (thesis supervisor), Katrina Korb (second reader), Julie Corkett (external examiner), Trinity Western University SGS (Degree granting institution)
Using a switching replications quasi-experimental design, this study investigated the effectiveness of the application Clicker Docs and tablet accessibility features as a 6 week alternating intervention tool for improving writing. Aspects of writing included writing quality, writing output, and attitudes of struggling writers. Two groups of 11 students from grades 2-7 who were identified with a disability or as a struggling writer, alternated participation in this intervention program. A mixed 2x2 repeated measures analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with pre-test scores as covariate was used. Results showed a large significant effect on writing quality at Post-test 2. On average, those in the iPad intervention group demonstrated better writing quality than those in the control group. In addition, a medium significant effect was found for writing output. On average, those in the iPad intervention group wrote less overall than those in the control group. No effect was found for attitude towards writing.
Mary K DeLong (author), Richard Sawatzky (thesis supervisor), Lena Cuthbertson (second reader), Sheryl Reimer-Kirkham (third reader), Trinity Western University SGS (Degree granting institution)
Person-centred care acknowledges the person behind the patient and can enhance the quality of life of long term care residents. Relational aspects of health care are foundational to person-centred care; this study examines associations between relational aspects of care and residents’ self-reported mental and physical health. A secondary analysis of British Columbia Residential Care Survey data (N = 2,108) used hierarchical multivariate linear regression to evaluate the extent to which relational aspects of care explain variation in self-reported physical and mental health, relative to other care experiences. Relative improvement in relational aspects of care was associated with greater self-reported physical and mental health. For self-reported physical health, relational aspects accounted for 34.5% of the explained variance (R2 = 0.279), and for self-reported mental health, accounted for 48.3% of the explained variance (R2 = 0.274). Relational aspects of care do positively influence residents’ physical and mental health outcomes.
Melissa J. De Boer (author), Richard Sawatzky (thesis supervisor), Sheryl Reimer-Kirkham (second reader), Patricia Porterfield (third reader), Trinity Western University SGS (Degree granting institution)
In this qualitative study, five nurses and four physicians from intensive care settings were interviewed about their experiences of the end-of-life (EOL) decision making process. For both professional groups, a shared mission to avoid futility was identified as foundational and climactic aim to the process. This desire heavily shaped initiation and engagement of what was presented as an ambiguous decision making process. Three themes emerged of elements that most influenced their variable experiences of the EOL decision making process: moral weightiness, family receptiveness, and the individual philosophy of approach. These findings emphasize the wide amount of subjective variability experienced and shed light on the competing emotional, psychological, and social interests for ICU nurses and physicians in the EOL decision making process. There must be greater understanding of the EOL decision making process in an intensive care context to provide better support to nurses and physicians.
Litigation abuse occurs when a perpetrator utilizes a range of tactics to continue to abuse, harass, and control their victim through the courts. The research question for this study was: what are the voices present in the experience of litigation abuse following intimate partner violence for women? Seven women who experienced litigation abuse following intimate partner violence volunteered to participate in this study. The listening guide methodology was used to explore voices related to the women’s experiences. Two categories of voice emerged within all narratives: voices of apprehension and voices of freedom. This study explores litigation abuse through a counselling psychology research lens and contributes to counselling theory and practice by introducing the beyond the barrier model. Furthermore, increased knowledge will contribute to a greater awareness, improve therapeutic interventions, and generate community responses to support victims of litigation abuse.
Paul R. Foth (author), Bruce L. Guenther (thesis supervisor), Robert K. Burkinshaw (second reader), Don M. Lewis (third reader), Trinity Western University GSTS (Degree granting institution)
Beginning in the late twentieth century, some evangelical Protestants in America turned to historic Catholic saints as inspirational exemplars of Christian faith. A surprisingly diverse range of American evangelicals appealed to Saint Francis of Assisi because he was perceived as a quintessentially authentic Christian. Saint Francis provided historical justification for some of these evangelicals’ own ideals of Christian discipleship, and served as an example for inspiration and emulation as they navigated contemporary American culture and the evolving evangelical movement. This thesis examines a range of American evangelical appropriations of Saint Francis of Assisi from 1972 to 2013, focusing on several sub-groups or movements within American evangelicalism. This examination of the evangelical reception of Saint Francis of Assisi contributes to a deeper understanding of evangelical Protestant interactions with Catholic spirituality, while also illuminating changing evangelical conceptions of what constitutes true Christian faith.
Rachel M Froese (author), Landa Terblanche (thesis supervisor), Sheryl Reimer-Kirkham (second reader), Maggie Theron (third reader), Trinity Western University SGS (Degree granting institution)
The phenomenon of bullying within nursing is not new, and unfortunately nursing students are often victims. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the perspectives of nursing students who have been bullied by staff nurses during a clinical experience. Participants from two western Canadian universities were recruited through convenience and snowball sampling using a series of emails and by a social media poster. Data collection involved one on one semi structured interviews with six senior undergraduate nursing students. Three main themes were identified: the student experience of bullying; the intervening influence of nursing educators; and the outcome of (in)security. Recommendations included education provided to students, clinical sites and clinical instructors; clinical setting guidelines for clinical instructors; policy implementation for reporting bullying and creating clinical groups; greater communication by institutional nursing leaders with staff and clinical instructors; and further research.
Benjamin J. Wukasch (author), Steve Nicolle (thesis supervisor), Ken Radant (second reader), Allan Effa (third reader), Trinity Western University SGS (Degree granting institution)
This thesis will suggest a centered approach to biblical hermeneutics, proposing a balance in the function of the hemispheres of the human mind, left and right. It will examine how `ordinary readers' are doing hermeneutics both in Africa and the West, and join these contributions to the insights of scholars who use the historical-grammatical hermeneutic, and laypeople who use a personal-devotional hermeneutic. The insights of Gadamer will be employed on the topic of horizons of authors and readers. The interpretive practices of ordinary readers will be justified through the theological concept of sensus plenior. The communication that takes place through Scripture will be analyzed in the framework of a linguistic theory of communication, Relevance Theory, which will explain why ordinary readers interpret in a personal-devotional way. After proposing a balanced hermeneutic, constraints are proposed for its outworking, looking at the significance of this thesis for the church and Bible translation.
Matthew Yat Sun Sin (author), Jim Lucas (thesis supervisor), Daryl Busby (second reader), Trinity Western University GSTS (Degree granting institution)
This research aims to suggest the various key leadership development roles of a lead pastor that will significantly influence the future development of effective spiritual leaders at a local church setting. By reviewing the current literature and biblical foundations, and interviewing the lead pastors and lay leaders/pastors of selected Chinese churches at Greater Vancouver Area, British Columbia, the author developed a contour or paradigm that defines effective spiritual leadership as a holistic personal life development, which includes seven ingredients: Passionate Affection for God, the Servanthood Character of Jesus, Self-understanding and Identity in Christ, Authentic Community Life, Emotionally Healthy Life, Self-differentiated Competence, and Ministry and Life Transformation; and also suggested a common set of the key roles of a lead pastor – Team Builder, Community Developer, Mentor, Group Trainer, Discipler and Coach - that are essential for developing effective spiritual leaders at Chinese churches of Canada.