Nicole Birkeland (author), Bruce Shelvey (thesis supervisor), Matthew Etherington (second reader), Jean Barman (external examiner), Trinity Western University SGS (Degree granting institution)
Social studies education in British Columbia from the 1940s until present has upheld active citizenship as a central objective of the program. While citizenship is never clearly defined, generally it has been assumed that through a process of self-actualization students come to know their rights and responsibilities as Canadian citizens. Problematically, these notions of citizenship have shaped the narration of Aboriginality within social studies education. Aboriginality has been represented in learning outcomes and resources materials within a progressive Canadian metanarrative, creating inaccurate and uninformed characterizations of Aboriginal peoples. Overall, social studies education has had a negative impact on the First Nations-Canadian relationship. However, social studies education could assist in developing more positive relationships. Engaging students in transformed historical study that fosters questioning, examines narrative choices, sees negotiation and interaction, recognizes and honours difference, and allows for dialogue, may foster more promising relationships in the future.
Karen Oostra (author), Barbara Astle (thesis supervisor), Heather Meyerhoff (second reader), Em Pijl Zieber (third reader), Trinity Western University SGS (Degree granting institution)
Baccalaureate nursing students must develop clinical reasoning skills in order to make sound clinical judgments. How students understand clinical reasoning is of interest to nurse educators. In a qualitative study, eight third-year nursing students were interviewed about their perceptions of clinical reasoning on a Clinical Judgment Exercise (CJE). An overarching theme of Over Time emerged from the data along with two themes: Understanding of Clinical Reasoning and Making Sense of the Assignment. The sub-themes that emerged were the same for each theme and were not knowing, knowing, applying knowing and valuing knowing. Conclusions were that student participants perceived: 1) understanding of clinical reasoning developed over time, 2) understanding of the patient’s problem deepened over the time of writing the assignment, 3) they were challenged by the complexity of the patient, 4) they were able to apply learning from the CJE to nursing practice and 5) writing the CJE was stressful.
John B. Walker (author), Jamin Pelkey (thesis supervisor), Sean Allison (second reader), Oliver Stegen (third reader), Trinity Western University SGS (Degree granting institution)
Through the elicitation of 91 Swahili sentences and the collection of one oral text, this research compares the TAM systems of several Mara Bantu languages (Tanzania/Kenya) with the aim of finding any shared "individual-identifying" innovations (Nichols 1996) that can either affirm Mara as a coherent genetic linguistic sub-group (Schoenbrun 1990) or point toward a different historical scenario. A secondary goal is to provide a preliminary linguistic description of the TAM systems of five Mara languages: Ikizu (JE402, [ikz]), Ikoma (JE45, [ntk]), Kabwa (JE405, [cwa]), Simbiti (JE431, [ssc]), and Zanaki (JE44, [zak]). The research concludes that there is sufficient "individual-identifying" evidence from TAM systems to validate both a North Mara and a South Mara subgroup (Schoenbrun 1990). There is not, on the other hand, a sufficient base of shared "individual-identifying" innovations to propose a unique proto-Mara TAM system uniting North Mara and South Mara at a post-proto-Great Lakes phase of development.
Danielle Lisa Katherine Chatterton (author), Richard Sawatzky (thesis supervisor), Angela Wolff (thesis supervisor), Landa Terblanche (third reader), Trinity Western University SGS (Degree granting institution)
Compassion fatigue (CF) has been found to influence nursing care providers (NCP) in a variety of specialized areas; however, general medicine unit settings are often overlooked. A potential way to mitigate CF could be through the use of organizational empowerment structures. 117 nursing care providers (NCP) and health care attendants (HCAs) who provided direct patient care in the hospital medical unit context were surveyed using a cross-sectional survey design. Five units from four hospitals of a large, urban health authority in British Columbia participated. Findings revealed that 55% of the sample reported moderate to severe levels of CF. Accessibility to resources was the only organizational empowerment structure that explained variability in the sample's experience of CF (p < 0.01). In addition, the variance of CF was partially explained by the participants' highest level of education and marital status (p < 0.05). Further investigation is needed to further assess CF mitigation.
Omele Burrell (author), Kent Clarke (thesis supervisor), Tony Cummins (second reader), Trinity Western University SGS (Degree granting institution)
The academic study of the seven-headed sea beast symbolism in the Apocalypse has proceeded along contemporary historical lines since the modern period. This approach seeks to locate the meaning of this symbolic reference within the historical context from which the book derives. While it remains true that careful historical analysis has advanced our understanding of the world in which the seer of Patmos lived and wrote, a strictly contemporary historical focus threatens to confine the significance of this apocalyptic symbol to the environs of the first century. In seeking to recover the theological and contemporary relevance of this symbol as a critique of imperial ambitions, this thesis argues for a reading strategy which locates the Book of Revelation foremost in the context of "canon." Such a reading stance illuminates the meaning of the symbolic beast in relationship to the deep intertextual and theological history which the final book of the Bible shares with the canonical corpus of Christian Scriptures.
The connections and tensions between siblings may impact the development and well-being that children with ASD and their typically developing (TD) siblings experience. Parenting style and parental stress are two factors that impact a caregiver's ability to effectively foster positive relationships. Finally, the interplay between sibling relationships, caregiver characteristics, sibling involvement in intervention, and success in ASD intervention is of interest. Primary caregivers (N = 108) completed an online questionnaire and a hierarchical multiple regression was conducted. Results indicated: 1) Parenting stress explains 12% of the variance found in the warmth and closeness of sibling relationships; 2) Sibling involvement and success in ASD intervention cumulatively contributes to 13.5% of the variance found in the warmth and closeness of sibling relationships; and 3) warmth and closeness uniquely explains 7% of the variance of success in ASD intervention. Limitations, practical implications, and future research direction will be discussed.
Anna Olson (author), Emma Pavey (thesis supervisor), Sean Allison (second reader), David Weber (external examiner), Trinity Western University SGS (Degree granting institution)
This thesis explores the difference between separable and non-separable transitive English phrasal verbs, focusing on finding a reason for the non-separable verbs’ lack of compatibility with the word order alternation which is present with the separable phrasal verbs. The analysis is formed from a synthesis of ideas based on the work of Bolinger (1971) and Gorlach (2004). A simplified version of Cognitive Construction Grammar is used to analyse and categorize the phrasal verb constructions. The results indicate that separable and non-separable transitive English phrasal verbs are similar but different constructions with specific syntactic reasons for the incompatibility of the word order alternation with the non-separable verbs.
Kathleen Lounsbury (author), Sheryl Reimer-Kirkham (thesis supervisor), Evelyn Voyageur (second reader), Barbara Astle (third reader), Trinity Western University SGS (Degree granting institution)
Community-based health services for Indigenous communities are undergoing considerable change in Northern and Western Canada. This study aimed to explore the status of community health nurses’ (CHNs) leadership knowledge, levels of change agency and the leadership implications in changing Indigenous nursing contexts, which reflect the different paradigms of First Nations Health Authority and Health Canada models of care. Six stories (three CHNs and three Stakeholders) were framed with the Conversational Method espoused by Kovach (2010). Each conversation was situated within the image of the two contrasting health model “trees” alongside corresponding analogies to issues identified by the participants. The use of ceremony as a deep way of inculcating lessons learnt is offered. My journey from a linear approach to data analysis to an Indigenous one is threaded throughout this thesis, and the leadership implications and possible alliances for the individual nurse, nursing education and nursing policy are presented.
Matthew J Hama (author), Kent D Clarke (thesis supervisor), Dirk L Büchner (second reader), Trinity Western University SGS (Degree granting institution)
Codex 0150 is an unpublished New Testament manuscript that has received minimal scholarly attention since its discovery. This critical edition offers a conservative transcription of 0150 based upon high resolution digital images provided by the Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts (CSNTM). The transcription includes a comprehensive analysis of variants, which occur when 0150 is read against both the NA28 and the RP versions of the Greek New Testament. This edition critically engages background information of the manuscript such as date, provenance, and content, while also providing a close examination of scribal features present in 0150. Additionally, this work maximizes digital imaging technology to better understand the contents of the manuscript, its author, and the ancient world from which it arose. This edition provides access to an important piece within the New Testament manuscript tradition, and offers a rich foundation on which future scholarship can build.
Marvin Bravo (author), Janelle Kwee (thesis supervisor), Marvin McDonald (second reader), Trinity Western University SGS (Degree granting institution), Richard Young (external examiner), Marvin McDonald (second reader)
This qualitative study uses the Enhanced Critical Incident Technique (ECIT) to explore incidents fathers report to be helpful or hindering to their parental engagement. Eight fathers were interviewed with 206 reported incidents. From the 206 incidents, 132 were identified as helpful (HE); 47 as hindering (HI); and 27 as wish list (WL) items. All incidents were assigned to one of the following categories (a) positive and negative role models, (b) Mother-Father Relationship (d) Father's Religion/Spirituality (e) Responsibility (f) Attachment (g) Personal Decision (h) Characteristics of Children (I) Reflective Parenting (j) Societal Influence (k) Father's Characteristics, and (l) Extended Family Influence. Fathers also provided 29 recommendations for effective paternal engagement. Research findings indicate major themes of responsibility, engagement, and father-mother dyad as important factors determining paternal involvement. Additionally, participants frequently referred to a confluence of factors impacting their involvement, which they navigate within a myriad of social roles.
Andrew Brigham (author), Myron Penner (thesis supervisor), Phillip Wiebe (second reader), Helen De Cruz (external examiner), Trinity Western University SGS (Degree granting institution)
Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace departed ways on the implications of evolution for human cognition. While Darwin argued that natural selection affected both the reliability and unreliability of human cognitive faculties, Wallace rejected the idea that natural selection could explain higher order intelligence. If Wallace is right, then Darwinian epistemology seems implausible. However, I argue that this position is false. In Chapter 1 I survey a history of Darwinian epistemology. In Chapter 2 I examine the Scope Objection to Darwinian epistemology: that evolution did not supply us with the natural cognitive capacities for achieving non-adaptive true beliefs. In Chapter 3 I respond to the Scope Objection by assessing Robert McCauley’s theory of natural cognition. In Chapter 4 I evaluate two difficulties with my response to the Scope Objection. I conclude that evolution is sufficient for explaining the reliability of human cognitive faculties in non-adaptive domains of belief.
B. Tammy Bartel (author), Derrick W. Klaassen (thesis supervisor), Janice W. Nadeau (second reader), Lauren J. Breen (external examiner), Trinity Western University SGS (Degree granting institution)
This study explored the complex, multifaceted, relational dimensions of grieving in the family unit. Three bereaved families, who had lost a child participated in a family conversation and individual processing interviews. The guiding research question was, “how do bereaved families grieve together and continue a relationship with their deceased child?” Data were collected using the qualitative action-project method (QA-PM). This unique methodology offered a glimpse into how these families engaged with each other in their joint grieving actions. Data analysis was informed by action theory, family systems theory, and an instrumental case study approach. Family grieving processes were identified for each family and commonalities included turning towards their grief, sharing the pain, experiencing both joy and sorrow, participating in mourning events, ongoing rituals and remembrances, recognizing different individual grieving styles, and a shared, enduring connection to their deceased child that connected them to each other. The findings from this study demonstrate the importance of recognizing the interpersonal dimensions of the grieving process, and the family as a resource in this process.