Jeffrey S. Peters (author), Larry J. Perkins (thesis supervisor), Tony Cummins (second reader), Sven K. Soderlund (third reader), Trinity Western University GSTS (Degree granting institution)
Many English Bible translations use the term “spiritual” to translate the Greek adjective πνευματικός. Some translations are exploring alternative ways to render πνευματικός in an attempt to be more specific about what it means, indicating the word “spiritual” may not be an adequate understanding of πνευματικός. Fifteen of twenty-six occurrences of πνευματικός in the New Testament occur in 1 Corinthians. The goal of this project is to ask, Why does Paul repeatedly use the term πνευματικός in 1 Corinthians? This project will clarify the context of 1 Corinthians and why Paul used the term πνευματικός the way he did, and will evaluate that use in light of the broader meaning of πνευματικός. I will argue that this adjective always means “pertaining to the πνεῦμα,” and in Paul’s letters the particular focus is almost always on the πνεῦμα of God, that is, in New Testament terms, the Holy Spirit. Paul’s usage of πνευματικός in 1 Corinthians is part of a corrective response to the distorted pneumatology of some in the Corinthian church. Paul’s vision is for an eschatological community of Christ, empowered by and living obediently to the Spirit in contrast to the schismatic, dysfunctional community that had arisen in Corinth during his absence.
Catherine M. Lorenz (author), Kenneth Pudlas (thesis supervisor), Dave Carter (second reader), Christina Belcher (external examiner), Trinity Western University SGS (Degree granting institution)
To be successful in school and in life students need to possess academic as well as social emotional competencies (Bridgeland, Bruce, & Hariharan, 2013; Durlak, Weissberg, Dymnicki, Taylor, & Schellinger, 2011; Zins & Elias, 2007). Academic skills include the ability to read, write and count whereas social and emotional competencies refer to skills that allow an individual to get along with others by being in control of their own behaviors (Zins & Elias, 2007). For social emotional and academic programming to be effective, schools need to have a data-driven system to facilitate and monitor student progress. A screening and progress monitoring system allows educators to pinpoint students who require targeted social emotional and/or academic learning opportunities and would inform on the effectiveness of intercessory programming. Such a system would ensure that students’ learning opportunities are optimally effective. Whereas academic assessments are plentiful, a stumbling block has been the lack of measurement tools for social emotional competencies, necessary for the identification of students in need of intervention (Maras, Thompson, Lewis, Thornburg, & Hawks, 2014; Nese et al., 2012). This study investigates the viability of utilizing an established measure of literacy skill, which is widely used in school systems, to provide insight into students’ social emotional competence. The author suggests that a reading fluency assessment may lend itself to inform on social emotional competence because both domains are processed in a similar area of the brain. The statistically significant results of the hierarchical regression analysis used in this study suggest that further research into measures of affective skills should explore the correlation between academic skills and social emotional competency.
Joshua Harris (author), Jens Zimmermann (thesis supervisor), Christopher Morrissey (second reader), Trinity Western University SGS (Degree granting institution)
For most of the twentieth and now also the twenty-first century, the world of academic philosophy has been plagued by the so-called "analytic-continental divide." In recent years, numerous attempts have been made to understand and bridge the `divide' because leading philosophers have realized that the sharp division between the two styles or traditions of philosophy has produced some harmful results for the discipline as a whole. This study is an attempt to read the divide through the lens of the Medieval controversy between Aquinas' doctrine of analogy and Scotus' doctrine of univocity.
Tyler J. R. Harper (author), Archie Spencer (thesis supervisor), Kenneth Radant (second reader), Ross Hastings (external examiner), Trinity Western University GSTS (Degree granting institution)
In opposition to the historical context of twentieth-century human centered religion, Karl Barth argues for a theologically based anthropology, fixing human self-knowledge on divine revelation and so constructing his understanding of humanity from within his Christology. In founding his concept of humanity on the reality of Christ, Barth is able to avoid the twin pitfalls of optimistic and pessimistic descriptions of humanity in the surrounding zeitgeist. Barth’s anthropology depicts the existence of true humanity as it is only made possible and represented by the person of Jesus Christ, who is simultaneously God for humanity and humanity for God. For Barth, this is humankind as it was created to be. This thesis examines Barth’s corpus to answer the question: Does a coherent theological treatment of humanity exist throughout Barth’s corpus, as it is grounded in the person of Jesus Christ?
Jillian M. Schmidt-Levesque (author), Janelle Kwee (thesis supervisor), Marvin McDonald (second reader), Chuck Macknee (third reader), Trinity Western University SGS (Degree granting institution)
Although literature acknowledges that fathers are critical figures in women’s lives, and the daughter-father relationship is crucial for women’s development of self, this understanding has been paired with a focus on negative developmental consequences instead of emphasizing the positive aspects found within the daughter-father relationship. This study was designed to combine two controversial and impactful areas of research, daughter-father relationships and women’s development of empowerment. Four daughter-father dyads were selected for inclusion based on the daughters’ self-reported positive relationships with their fathers. All four daughterfather dyads identified as Christian and active members of Evangelical culture. Throughout the narratives spirituality was hugely influential in supporting daughters’ identity development.. In order to capture the essence of the inner experiences daughters and fathers have voiced in relationship with one another, the qualitative feminist method the Listening Guide was employed. Through participants’ narratives, voices were identified which spoke of relationship (voices of autonomy, silencing, empathy, yearning, acceptance, approval, attunement, parental guidance, connection, and resistance). Through experiences in connection with their fathers, the daughters were able to begin to organize their sense of self.
Single and childless women over the age of 35 constitute an expanding demographic in North America and in many parts of the world, yet we are still living in a society that places great importance on marriage and family and views them as important markers of life success. This research was designed to explore how involuntarily single (never-married) and childless women experience themselves during early midlife (ages 35-45). Eight women’s experiences were explored in this study using the feminist relational methodology of the Listening Guide. Data analysis uncovered three categories of voices: voices which conveyed the positivity of living a single and childless identity (i.e. the voices of hope, faith, gratitude, nurturance, freedom, and resilience), voices which conveyed the struggles of living a single and childless identity (i.e. the voices of invisibility, shame, confusion, loneliness, guilt, longing, and uncertain waiting), and the voice of ambivalence.
Krista Socholotiuk (thesis supervisor), Darcie R. Brown (author), Janelle Kwee (second reader), Megan Foley Nicpon (external examiner), Trinity Western University SGS (Degree granting institution)
Twice-exceptional children are gifted and have at least one area of disability. This combination presents unique parenting challenges that are important to understand given the central role that parents play in the success of their twice-exceptional children. Self-compassion is treating oneself with understanding and acceptance when faced with imperfections; it has been shown to be a powerful source of coping and resilience for a wide range of populations. This constructivist study used the listening guide—a qualitative, relational, voice-centred method (Gilligan, 2015) where 7 self-compassionate parents of twice-exceptional children were interviewed about their understandings of self-compassion in parenting. Data analysis revealed three groupings of voices: Presence and Wise voices were the voices of self-compassion, and Demand voices emerged as a dissonant, non-self-compassionate counterpoint. The four themes that emerged revealed parents used self-compassion to weather challenges, to remain mindful despite difficulties, to engage wiser problem-solving, and to nurture important relationships.
Lauren Tideman (author), Roderic Casali (thesis supervisor), Keith Snider (second reader), William Gardner (third reader), Trinity Western University SGS (Degree granting institution)
The Guang language family of Ghana has received a fair amount of study over the past several decades. Snider’s (1990b) work is the most extensive study on Guang phonology. The aim of this thesis will be to cite new information and build upon Snider’s work to gain a better understanding of Guang phonology, specifically in relation to vowel systems and phenomena. Some of the most prominent phonological processes in Guang involving vowels include ATR and rounding harmony, and hiatus resolution. This study examines the consistencies and differences among Guang languages with regard to vowel phenomena. While some interesting variation does exist across the Guang language family, examination of available resources and data, along with some acoustic analysis, show that Guang vowel phenomena are generally consistent. The most important aspect that is consistent across Guang languages, despite differing analyses and descriptions, is that all exhibit nine-vowel systems.
Chris H. Christiansen (author), Paul Chamberlain (thesis supervisor), Kent Clarke (external examiner), Brian Rapske (second reader), Trinity Western University GSTS (Degree granting institution)
The purpose of this thesis is to examine and refute the arguments made by mythicists, who deny the historicity of Jesus of Nazareth. It begins by investigating the historical development of myth. Next, it explores the history of mythicism since its inception in the eighteenth century. The penultimate chapter outlines the main criticisms that mythicists level against the Gospels; the final chapter responds to these arguments. There are two major findings of this thesis. First, the mythicists’ standard for evidence is not applied consistently. Second, they fail to show why their interpretations of the available data are better than more traditional approaches. The conclusion is that they do not provide sufficient reasons for doubting the existence of Jesus as a human in history.
Jonathan A. Janzen (author), Roderick Casali (thesis supervisor), Sean Alison (second reader), Peter Jacobs (external examiner), Trinity Western University SGS (Degree granting institution)
Kwak̕wala is often transcribed with unaddressed assumptions about the basic word-unit. A syntactition will regard the grammatical-word as the word constituent, whereas a phonologist will see the phonological-word as most relevant. As a morphologist, I am caught between these two definitions of the 'word'. Since Kwak̕wala has always been a predominantly oral language, I assume the spoken-word as most relevant 'word' constituent for Kwak̕wala speakers, with phonological criteria for defining its boundaries. These boundaries can be isolated through three tests: 1) the stress domain, 2) occurrences of pauses, and 3) self-repair resets. These tests show that most Kwak̕wala clitics are integrated with their phonological-word hosts. However the definite article clitic and the case marking clitics display more independence than all others by allowing pauses and self-repair to occur between them and their hosts. Still other clitics, when uttered in a successive string, also create the same independence from their hosts.
Jillian Hart (author), Marvin McDonald (thesis supervisor), Joanne Stephen (second reader), David Reid (external examiner), Trinity Western University SGS (Degree granting institution)
The present study explored the wider relational context of partners of women facing cancer. Seven male partners of breast cancer patients shared their experience of being a partner to a woman going through cancer. Dialogal phenomenology allowed for clarification of the landscape of these partners' experience by providing opportunity to formulate their experience and to unfold meanings attributed to this experience. Seven themes were identified: crisis and aftermath; children, parenting, and fertility; personal impact; breast cancer as a shared experience; honouring voices and voice; relational choreography; and relational outlook. These men shared different ways that being a partner of a woman with cancer is a shared experience. One pattern that emerged describes how a "you and me" couple identity framework can shift into a "we" perspective. These results revealed how couple identity emerged in relational patterns of engagement during conversational interviewing, a distinctive feature that fits well with previous findings.
Amy C Kobelt (author), Janelle Kwee (thesis supervisor), Jennifer Mervyn (second reader), Barbara Astle (external examiner), Trinity Western University SGS (Degree granting institution)
In Canada sex trafficking is a hidden crime that impacts women of every race and socioeconomic status, though Indigenous women are disproportionately represented as victims. This study provided a platform to listen to seven female survivors’ experiences of healing, strength and resiliency after they were freed from exploitation in Canada to counteract victim’s experiences of oppression and silencing. The qualitative feminist method of the listening guide was utilized to provide victim-informed research driven by participant’s narratives. Two categories of voices emerged in participants’ narratives: voices of resistance and voices of healing. The voices of resistance (oppression, dismissal, avoidance, confusion, and disconnection), spoke about obstacles and barriers in healing, while voices of healing (connection, knowing, compassion, resilience, advocacy, agency, and purpose), captured women’s stories of healing. Survivors were found to experience healing through connection with themselves and others, mastery of new skills, regaining their autonomy, finding purpose, and sharing their stories.