Taylor-Marie C. Sonnenberg (author), Landa Terblanche (thesis supervisor), Deborah A. Gibson (second reader), Suzanne Campbell (third reader), Trinity Western University SGS (Degree granting institution)
Supporting responsive, cue-based breastfeeding (RCBBF) (i.e., baby-led) is considered best practice for promoting maternal-infant attachment and reducing an infants’ obesity risk. RCBBF recognizes the reciprocal relationship between the maternal-infant dyad. Public health nurses (PHNs) are exposed to mixed messaging and we do not know how they enact RCBBF in practice. This study used interpretive description to explore PHNs’ perceptions of RCBBF. Semi-structured interviews were conducted online. One overarching theme, bound by trust, and three sub-themes were identified: disrupted trust (informational disruption and maternal mistrust), building trust (education and responsiveness to maternal needs), and maintaining trust (varying degrees of trust). Participants’ perceptions of RCBBF were filtered through a lens of trust that could be limited or enhanced. When disrupted, trust was limited, when built, it was enhanced, and when threatened, it was maintained. These findings are significant in beginning to understand the clinical application of RCBBF, but more research is needed.
Katelin J. Kavanagh (author), Darlaine Jantzen (thesis supervisor), Sheryl Reimer-Kirkham (second reader), Shelly Canning (third reader), Trinity Western University SGS (Degree granting institution)
Many benefits have been associated with nurse educator engagement in clinical practice (CP). However, nursing faculty CP has received minimal attention since the early 1990s and has rarely been discussed in Canada. Through interviews with twelve Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) faculty, this study used grounded theory to explore how Canadian BSN educators currently engage in CP. The core category identified was "Keeping a Foot in Both Worlds", which captures the tension that may be experienced by faculty who choose to engage as both clinical practitioners and teachers. Faculty in this dual role described themselves as uniquely positioned to integrate theory and practice and to connect the campus and clinical settings. This study also highlights the challenges BSN faculty face while maintaining a CP and underlines the positive impact this practice might have on teaching/learning. Recommendations include cultural and structural considerations for nurses in CP, education, and leadership.
Benjamin KC Birkenstock (author), Myron Penner (thesis supervisor), Yonghua Ge (second reader), Edward G Slingerland (external examiner), Trinity Western University SGS (Degree granting institution)
This paper develops a Daoist account of the virtue of humility in light of psychological research. Warry of self-deprecation, contemporary psychology has redefined humility as accurate self-perception combined with other-focus, but provides little explanation as to how these “twin dimensions” coincide and produce humble behavior. The Daodejing (5-3rd centuries BCE) provides a helpful perspective on humility. Any effort or ambition pushed too far becomes counterproductive. By embracing lowliness and identifying with socially-undesirable conditions, we subvert self-destructive vanity. Psychological studies over the past century tellingly suggest that the human mind only has limited capacities for cognitive control, and that prescribing symptoms—ironically intending the very outcomes we usually avoid—is often more productive than trying to control them. I propose that a conception of humility as the tendency of choosing to accept unwanted outcomes and situations when necessary is more practical and realistic than the current “twin-dimensional” account.
Georgia S Jackett (author), Marvin McDonald (thesis supervisor), Danielle Vriend Fluit (second reader), Gary Thomas (second reader), Trinity Western University SGS (Degree granting institution)
Generative devotion is a desirable outcome for some married Christian couples who strive to cultivate flourishing relationships with each other and with God (Dollahite et al., 2019). A narrative approach was adopted to investigate distinctive patterns among a subgroup of Christians from their experience of growth in their marital quality, emotional maturity, and spiritual journey as a couple. The results for the thematic analysis emerged in 13 shared themes, connecting in a larger pattern: foundation, oneness, depth, and growth. The emic results contribute to and expand the etic models of the generative devotion researchers. These findings may inform researchers, therapists, and pastors from these communities who work to equip Christian couples in pursuit of godly marriages. The patterns that emerged from these couples may inspire adherents of other faiths who desire to build healthy relationships as they work towards growing in faith, emotional maturity, and depth of love in marriage.
Larry Perkins (thesis supervisor), Marie-Josée Fortin (author), Brian Rapske (second reader), Tony Cummins (external examiner), Trinity Western University GSTS (Degree granting institution)
The hermeneutic used by the writers of the New Testament in their interpretation of the Jewish Scriptures seems so far from 21st century exegetical principles that it is often considered as puzzling. One of those mysteries is the way some authors combine citations from the Jewish Scriptures and integrate them in their text as if coming from a single text—combinations of citations also known as composite citations. This study examines why and how some authors adapt texts from the Old Testament to use them as literary devices with rhetorical intent. A simplified Socio-Rhetorical-Interpretation method is used to examine selected composite citations found in Mark’s Gospel. This investigation includes an exploration of literary devices, discourse analysis, grammatical and socio-cultural considerations, as well as a reflection on the integration of those composite citations and their motifs within the Markan narrative.
Janick Fortier (author), Andrew Krause (thesis supervisor), Robert J. V. Hiebert (second reader), Lissa M. Wray Beal (external examiner), Trinity Western University GSTS (Degree granting institution)
How does one differentiate between true and false prophets? The Bible gives numerous criteria for such discernment, but biblical scholars have long recognized the challenge to their applicability. Focusing on the book of Jeremiah, my investigation leads me toward a clearer understanding of what constitute a true prophet and a list of criteria on how to distinguish them from false prophets. My criteria bring attention primarily to the person and the message of the prophet. These criteria do not eliminate all doubts for all prophetic claims, but I argue that they prove to be useful enough to inspire confidence for the assessment of prophets. It is my contention that complexity and difficulties should not lead one to conclude that prophetic discernment is impossible. Like in many more areas, discernment criteria expect the use of prudence and wisdom in their application.
Fernando A Miranda (author), Jonathan Numada (thesis supervisor), Brian M Rapske (second reader), Joshua Coutts (external examiner), Trinity Western University GSTS (Degree granting institution)
The meaning of the drawing of the Father in John 6:44 has been debated among scholars in biblical commentaries and lexicons. Most interpretations of the use of ἕλκω (draw) in John 6:44 have focused more on current systematic theological debates as the framework to define the idea of the drawing of the Father. Although there has been valuable work on it, an accurate lexicological study of the word ἕλκω in connection with an exegetical study that focuses on the literary context of the gospel of John is still missing. This thesis applies lexicological methodologies such as diachronic and synchronic approaches to get a valid definition of the drawing of the Father which would lead to a better understanding, not only of this divine action, but also of an important mechanism that unites the ministry Jesus and the revelation of the Father in the law of Moses.
Litigation abuse occurs when a perpetrator utilizes a range of tactics to continue to abuse, harass, and control their victim through the courts. The research question for this study was: what are the voices present in the experience of litigation abuse following intimate partner violence for women? Seven women who experienced litigation abuse following intimate partner violence volunteered to participate in this study. The listening guide methodology was used to explore voices related to the women’s experiences. Two categories of voice emerged within all narratives: voices of apprehension and voices of freedom. This study explores litigation abuse through a counselling psychology research lens and contributes to counselling theory and practice by introducing the beyond the barrier model. Furthermore, increased knowledge will contribute to a greater awareness, improve therapeutic interventions, and generate community responses to support victims of litigation abuse.
Kathleen Lounsbury (author), Sheryl Reimer-Kirkham (thesis supervisor), Evelyn Voyageur (second reader), Barbara Astle (third reader), Trinity Western University SGS (Degree granting institution)
Community-based health services for Indigenous communities are undergoing considerable change in Northern and Western Canada. This study aimed to explore the status of community health nurses’ (CHNs) leadership knowledge, levels of change agency and the leadership implications in changing Indigenous nursing contexts, which reflect the different paradigms of First Nations Health Authority and Health Canada models of care. Six stories (three CHNs and three Stakeholders) were framed with the Conversational Method espoused by Kovach (2010). Each conversation was situated within the image of the two contrasting health model “trees” alongside corresponding analogies to issues identified by the participants. The use of ceremony as a deep way of inculcating lessons learnt is offered. My journey from a linear approach to data analysis to an Indigenous one is threaded throughout this thesis, and the leadership implications and possible alliances for the individual nurse, nursing education and nursing policy are presented.
Shelby Bennett (author), Andrew B. Perrin (thesis supervisor), Robynne Rogers Healey (second reader), Craig C. Broyles (third reader), Trinity Western University SGS (Degree granting institution)
The #MeToo movement broke the silence around abuse of women. Within the church, women’s voices have been dismissed, disbelieved, or intimidated into silence, reflecting the Bible’s depiction of women as passive and silent, if mentioned. In stark contrast, a new text found in the Dead Sea Scrolls – called the Genesis Apocryphon – contains a retelling of Genesis stories in which the women are named, identified, and given speech and action. Why did these ancient scribes choose to expand the female characters? This study employs both biblical and feminist studies to examine the four stories of women in the Genesis Apocryphon: the women of the Watchers myth, Batenosh, Emzara, and Sarai. It finds the Second Temple authors expanding female characters’ identities in order to emphasize endogamous marriages. The Genesis Apocryphon’s inclusion of women’s voices illuminates the deafening silence of Genesis and points a way forward for biblical interpretation and feminist praxis today.
C. Sean Smith (author), Sean D. Allison (thesis supervisor), Steve M. Nicolle (second reader), Pilar M. Valenzuela (third reader), Trinity Western University SGS (Degree granting institution)
This thesis is a description of the switch reference system in Marubo (ISO 693-3 [mzr]), an underdescribed Panoan language of western Amazonia. Marubo has a fascinating switch reference system which carries a high functional load in the grammar. This complex system, comprised of nine markers, tracks referents across clauses, often displaying sensitivity to an argument’s grammatical role; temporal and logical relations are also encoded as extended functions of the markers. Of particular typological interest is the cross-referencing of O arguments with other S, A, or O arguments. Switch reference markers may occur in clause chains where they target either adjacent or non-adjacent clauses. In certain cases, the standard order of clauses may be reversed, often producing a reading which elaborates on the preceding information. In addition, non-coreferential clauses may be interposed in clause chains for brief alternations of topic. Lastly, areas which deserve more study are presented, such as the flexible use of switch reference to mark discontinuities related to time, weather and events. All data and analysis come from four years of immersion-based fieldwork by the author, with abundant examples from a variety of Marubo discourse genres.
Hannah C Olney (author), Steve Nicolle (thesis supervisor), Sean Allison (second reader), Joseph Lovestrand (third reader), Trinity Western University SGS (Degree granting institution)
The Makary Kotoko [Chadic] determiner is not a grammatically obligatory marker. Although constrained by the identifiability of the referent, speakers are not required to use the determiner in any particular instance. In narrative texts, the distribution of the determiner can be understood through the principles of attention guidance and salience. The primary pattern of distribution is “salience tracking”, where referents receive determiner marking any time they are directly involved in the narrative. Exceptions to this pattern still contribute to the narrator’s overall goal of attention guidance. In addition, two of the nine texts analyzed displayed a different distribution pattern, “salience flagging”, where the determiner occurred less frequently but still for the purpose of attention guidance. Finally, I propose that the difference between these two patterns may be a result of the process of determiner grammaticalization.